Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Outline of Struggles for Rights and Freedom

Struggles for Rights and Freedom

I.      From “Indio” to “Filipinos”
a.       Causes of Revolts
1.    Personal Grievances
2.    Opposition to Spanish-Imposed Institutions
3.    Religious Motives
4.    Moro Wars (1578-1898)

II.    Birth of Filipino Nationalism
a.       Decelerators
1.       Lack of national consciousness
2.       Colonial Policy (Divide and Rule)
3.       Lack of Unity
4.       No lingua franca
5.       Lack of weapons and skillful leaders
6.       Presence of priests (Frailocracia)
b.       Accelerators
1.       Opening of the Philippines to World Market (1834)
2.       Opening of Suez Canal (1869)
3.       Rise of Clase Media
4.       European Liberalism
5.       Liberal Regime of Gov-Gen Carlos Ma. Dela Torre
6.       Racial Discrimination
7.       Secularization Controversy
8.       Cavite Mutiny (January 20, 1872)
9.       Execution of GOMBURZA (February 17, 1872)

III.    Campaign for Reforms
a.       Nature: ASSIMILATION
1.       Make Philippines as a province of Spain
2.       Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards
3.       Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes
4.       Secularization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the friars
5.       Human rights for Filipinos (freedom of speech, of the press and to meet and petition for redress of grievances)
b.       Triumvirate
1.       Jose P. Rizal (June 19, 1861- December 30, 1896)
2.       Marcelo H. del Pilar (August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896)
3.       Graciano Lopez Jaena (December 17, 1856 – January 20, 1896)
c.        La Solidaridad (February 15, 1889)
d.       Circulo Hispano-Filipino
e.        Freemasonry (anti-clerical, humanitarian and free-thinking)
f.         La Liga Filipina (July 3, 1892): Cuerpo de Compromisarios/ KKK
g.       Failure:
1.       Spain is preoccupied of internal problems
2.       Did not have sufficient means/ funds
3.       Divided against themselves by petty jealousies

IV.     Katipunan
a.       Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan nang manga Anak ng Bayan
b.       Objectives: political, moral and civic
c.        Structure: Supreme Council, Provincial Council and Popular Council
d.       Membership: Katipon (black/Anak ng Bayan),
Kawal (green/Gomburza), 
Bayani (red/Rizal)
e.       Flags of Katipunan
f.        Celebration: Day of Prayer (February 17)
g.       Triumvirate:
1.       Andres Bonifacio (Nov. 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897)
2.       Emilio Jacinto
3.       Emilio Aguinaldo
h.       Kartilla: Teachings of Katipunan
i.         Kalayaan: Newspaper

V.       1896  Philippine Revolution
a.       First Phase
1.       Rizal and the Revolution
2.       Discovery of the Katipunan: Apolonio dela Cruz and Teodoro Patiño
3.       The “Cry” of Pugadlawin: August 23, 1896
4.       The Katipunan in Cavite: Magdiwang and Magdalo
5.       The Tejeros Convention: March 22, 1897
6.       The Naik Military Agreement
7.       The Biyak-na-Bato Republic
8.       Truce of Biyak-na-Bato
a.       Aguinaldo and companions would go voluntary exile abroad
b.       Primo de Rivera pay the sum P800,000 to 3 installments:
                                  i.      P 400,000 to Aguinaldo for his departure
                                  ii.      P 200,000 when arms are surrendered (exceed 700)
                                  iii.      P 200,000 Te Deum sand and general amnesty proclaimed
c.        Primo de Rivera pay additional P 900,000 to the civilians
b.       Second Phase
1.       Americans Design to the Philippines: economic, political, religious
2.       The Spanish-American War: Maine (February 15, 1898)
3.       Battle of Manila Bay: May 1, 1898
4.       The Spanish-American Secret Agreement
5.       Treaty of Paris: December 10, 1898

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