Thursday, September 5, 2013

Campaign for Independence



CAMPAIGN FOR PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE
Introduction

                Neither the material and cultural progress which the Philippines enjoyed under the American flag nor the gloomy prophecies made by American imperialists concerning the future of a free Philippines deterred the Filipino people in their aspiration for independence. From 1919 to 1934, they campaigned for independence and sent twelve independence missions to America. As a result of their campaign, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was finally established in 1935. This was the preparatory step to the establishment of the Third Philippine Republic on July 4, 1946.

I. First Philippine Independence Mission

                *February 28, 1919       : Headed by Senate President Manuel Quezon

                *March 17, 1919 : The Phil. Legislature passed the famous “Declaration of Purposes” 
                    which stated the desire of the Filipinos to be a free sovereign country

*December 2, 1920        : In his farewell address to the Congress, President Wilson recommended the granting of Phil. Independence. Unfortunately, the recommendation of the outgoing Democratic President was not heeded because the Republican Party controlled the Congress

III. OS-ROX MISSION

*December 31, 1931     : The 9th mission, popularly known as OS-ROX MISSION, after its leaders Senate President Pro-Tempore Sergio Osmena and House Speaker Manuel Roxas

*Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill: Sponsored by Rep. Butler Hare, Senator Harry Hawes and Senator Bronson Cutting, was passed by Congress on December 30, 1932, vetoed by Pres. Herbert Hoover on January 13, 1933 and repressed over the Presidential veto on January 17, 1933.
IV. THE PROS VS ANTIS

           *The Antis     : Unipersonalistas, Opposed the HHC Act because of its objectionable features and led by Quezon

            *The Pros   : Colectivistas, Headed by Speaker Roxas and Sen.Osmena, upheld it on the ground that it was the best independence measure that could be obtained from Congress

            *December 1932   : Quezon sent a one-man mission, which is Aquino to Washington DC with definite instructions regarding his objections

V. TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE LAW

*March 24, 1934 : a new independence measure was passed and signed by Pres. Roosevelt which is calledTydings-McDuffie Law. It was named after its sponsors Senator Millard E. Tydings and Rep. John McDuffie.            

   *The differences of Tydings-McDuffie Law from HHC Act were the change in the title, the modification of certain vague provisions and the elimination of military reservations.

  *May 1, 1934       : The Philippine Legislature accepted the Tydings-McDuffie Law

VI. CALLING OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

*May 5, 1934   : The Philippine Legislature passed an act setting the election of 202 delegates to the convention.

*July 10, 1934      : By special proclamation, Gov.-Gen. Murphy designated the election of the delegates to the convention.

VII. THE DELEGATES OF THE CONVENTION
                * Majority of the 202 delegates of the Con-Con were lawyers, including many who had been judges, legislators and cabinet members.
                * TeodoroSandiko      : a former revolutionary general and signer ofMalolos Constitution, oldest delegate who was then past 74 years old
                *Wenceslao Q. Vinzon: a youth leader and orator, youngest delegate who was less than 25 years old

VIII. INAUGURAL SESSION OF THE CONVENTION
                *10:30AM, July 30, 1934: At the hall of the House of Representatives, Legislative Building, Manila; the convention met in an inaugural session.
                * Jose P. Laurel    : a delegate from Batangaswho was chosen to act as the temporary chairman. He presided over the election of the Convention officers.
                * The elected officers of the Convention were Claro M. Recto, President; RubertoMontinola, and TeodoroSandikoas the First and Second Vice-President; Narciso Pimentel as Secretary and NarcisoDioknoas Sgt-at-Arms.

                *Sponsorship Committee:  it is the largest and most powerful of the committees having 87 members and Filemon Sotto is the Chairman. Their duties were to consider the different constitutional proposals submitted by committees and prepare a draft of the constitution.

IX. DRAFTING OF THE CONSTITUTION
                *October 8, 1934         : The Sponsorship Committee created a sub-committee of seven to draft the constitution.

*Sub-Committee of Seven: The members of the committee were called as the “Seven Wise Men” by the press namely Filemon Sotto as Chairman, Manuel A. Roxas, Norberto Romualdez, Manuel C. Briones, ConradoBenites, Miguel Cuaderno and Vincent SingsonEncarnacion.

*October 20, 1934   : The Sub-Committee reported the finished draft of the constitution to the Sponsorship Committee which in turn was submitted to the Convention.
           
     *January 31, 1935       : The Convention approved the draft with certain amendments.
      (Bill of Rights which was modeled after the American Constitution.)

X. APPROVAL BY THE PRESIDENT OF UNITED STATES
                *March 23, 1935   : President Roosevelt approved the constitution of the Philippines.
                *May 14, 1935     : The plebiscite on the Constitution was held. The qualified voters of the Philippines went to the pulls including women who possessed the voting qualifications.

XI. INAUGURATION OF THE COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT

                *November 15, 1935: At the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated.

XII. FIRST ELECTION UNDER THE CONSTITUTION
                *September 17, 1935: The first national election under the constitution was held.

                * The three political parties in the First 1935 Election were:
                                1. Coalition Party        : Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmena tandem for Pres. and V-Pres.
                                2. National Socialist Party: Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and RaymundoMelliza
                                3. Republican Party: Bishop Gregorio Aglipay and Norberto Nabong

                *Manuel Quezon was elected as the President and Sergio Osmenawas elected as the Vice-President of the Philippines.


2 comments:

  1. As you can see, Philippine Independence Missions were not being discussed in detailed. This is just a summary and important and easy to familiarize factual events were just only included. You can refer to Agoncillo's Book History of the Filipino people. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete

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