Thursday, September 5, 2013
The Liberation Period
On January 2, 1942, Japan successfully occupied Manila and day after, a Japanese proclamation was issued that warned Filipinos against “offering resistance of committing hostile acts against the Japanese forces in any manner”. And the results of the Japanese proclamation were Filipinos threatened with death, majority was cowed to silence, and other Filipinos fled to the mountains to join the guerillas.
When Bataan and Corregidor fell, quite number of Filipino and American officers and soldiers succeeded in escaping to the mountains and there they directed the underground movement, formed guerilla units and continued the fight against the enemy.
I. GUERILLA WARFARE
Not all Filipinos surrendered to Japan. In the early days of the occupation many Filipino soldiers and officers had escaped from Bataan and other battlefields and numerous patriotic civilians secretly organized themselves into guerilla units in order to keep aglow the torch of democracy in their land.
* Famous guerilla leaders were: Luis Taruc and Castro Alejandro (HUKBALAHAP), Guillermo Nakar(Northern Luzon), BadoDangwa(Mountain Province), Ali Dimaporo(Lanao), RupertoKangleon(Leyte), SalipadaPendatun(Mindanao), WenceslaoVinzon(Bicol), RoqueAblan(Ilocos Norte), Macario Peralta (Panay), Terry Adevoso(Manila, ROTC Hunters), Marcos Agustin (Manila, Southern Luzon) and others.
*Some American figured prominently in the movement among them were C.A. Thorpe, Wendell W. Fertig, Hugh Strungh, Bernard L. Anderson, Robert E. Lapham, Walter M. Cushing, Russel W. Volckmann, Edwin F. Ramsey and Donald Blackburn.
*Threefunctions that guerilla did during the war:
1. to ambush or kill enemy soldiers and civilians
2. to relay information and important intelligence reports to MacArthur in Australia
3. Liquidate spies and Japanese sympathizers
*Guerilla newspapers: MatangLawin(by GuilLermoNakar in Sierra Madre), The Liberator (Leon O. Ty in Cavite, Manila, Rizal and Bulacan), The Flash (Pedro de Llana), Ing Masala (HUKBALAHAP in Central Luzon), Kalibo War Bulletin (Panay), AngTigbatas(Tomas Confessor in Panay), etc.
II. MACARTHUR’S RETURN
* October 20, 1944:174,000 American troops, ferried by an armada of 700US warships landed at Red Beach in Palo, Leyte with Carlos Romulo and Sergio Osmeña (Japanese air resistance in Visayas was weak, according to Admiral William F. Bull)
* October 23, 1944: the Commonwealth Government was declared restored, with Tacloban as temporary capital
*October 24-26: Battle for Leyte Gulf was the greatest naval battle in Phil. history
(Surigao Strait, San Bernardino Strait in Samar and Cape Engano)
*December 21, 1944: President Laurel and his Cabinet moved to Baguio. Japanese forces also retreated to the “Yamashita Line”, a battlefront stretching along the jungle of Sierra Madre from Antipolo to Aparri.
III. BATTLES FOR THE LIBERATION OF PHILIPPINES
*January 1: Mindoro
*January 9: Lingayen, Pangasinan
*January 23: Pangatian, Camp O’Donnel, Concepcion, Tarlac
*January 25: Fort Stonsenberg fell to the Americans
*January 31: Olongapo Submarine base
*February 3-5: Liberate Manila (made a commando raid to rescue POWs in Santo Tomas Interment Camp)
*February 19: Battle for the liberation of Visayas and Mindanao
*February 28: Palawan was recovered
*March 11: Zamboanga was recovered
*March 18: Panay was liberated
*March 26: Americans landed in Negros
*April 28: Liberation of Baguio City and Victory at Balete Pass
*May 3: Davao was liberated
* June: end of the battle for Visayas and Mindanao
*July 4, 1945: MacArthur proclaimed the liberation of the entire Philippines from the enemy
IV. END OF THE WAR
* May 6, 1945: V-E Day, the war in Europe came to close because of Germany’s surrender to the Allied Powers
*July 26, 1945: the Potsdam Declaration was issued by the Americans to serve as an ultimatum of Japan, but the latter refuse to surrender. This prompted US to drop atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima on August 6 and in Nagasaki on August 9. At the same time, Russia declared war against Japan.
*August 15, 1945: Japan surrendered
*August 17, 1945: Jose Laurel from his refuge in Nara, Japan issued an Executive Proclamation declaring the dissolution of the 2nd Philippine Republic
*September 3, 1945: V-J Day, Formal instrument of surrender was signed at the US Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Out of the ashes of World War II emerged the Third Republic, the first country to the voluntarily decolonized by a great power after power and, for some time, a loyal and staunch ally of the former colonizing country, the United States, and a showcase of transplanted American-style democracy and government in Asia.
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