Thursday, September 5, 2013

The Third Republic: Garcia, Marcapagal and Marcos Administration


At the zenith of Magsaysay’s popularity and power, he died in a plane crash in Cebu on Sunday, March 17, 1957. He was succeeded by Carlos Garcia to continue the remaining term. On November 12, 1957, he ran again for reelection and for the first time in history that the Filipinos voted for a President and a Vice-President belonging to opposing parties. However, fame was the best asset during the election that led to the induction to presidency of Diosdado Macapagal and later on Ferdinand Marcos in administering the country.

I. GARCIA ADMINISTRATION (Term: March 17, 1957 – December 30, 1961)

Laws and Programs:

1.       Strengthen democracy in the Philippines
2.       Revival of Filipino culture
3.       Adoption of Filipino First Policy (Pilipino Muna)
4.       Creation of Dr. Jose Rizal Commission
5.       Austerity Program
6.       Fostering international goodwill and friendship by state visits

1.       Implemented the principle of Pilipino Munawhich aimed to support and patronize Filipino-made products, Filipino language, music, arts
2.       Accomplished the $500 M War Damage Claim from Japan for the rehabilitation of the Philippines from destruction caused by war
3.       Credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts
4.       Implemented Austerity Program in order to curt the rampant graft and corruption within the country

1.       Criticized for graft and corruption
2.       Failed to stop inflation, smuggling and criminality
3.       Criticized by foreign countries, especially the United States for his anti-foreign policies
4.       Corruption within the BIR in which had implemented the Austerity Program

II. MACAPAGAL ADMINISTRATION(Term: December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965)
Laws and Programs:
1.       Targeted the following areas in his administration:
a.       Self-sufficiency in the staple food of the people
b.       Conditions that will provide more income
c.       Well-formulated socio-economic program
d.       Strengthen the sense of morality of the government by instituting modes of reform
e.       Set example of honest and simple living
2.       Agricultural Land Reform Code (RA 3844) on August 8, 1963
3.       MAPHILINDO (Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia) Conference on June 7-11, 1963 and signing of Manila Accord

1.       Signed the RA 3844
2.       Abolished share tenancy on rice and corn farmlands and establishment of a leasehold system where farmers would pay rentals to landlords instead of harvests
3.       Instrumental in the change of independence day from July 4 to June 12
4.       Spearheaded the country’s claim of Sabah from Malaysia
5.       Dismissed corruption in the government when official couldn’t justify his sudden acquisition of wealth
6.       Allowed Philippine peso to float on the free currency exchange market
7.       Encouraged the use of Filipino language in diplomatic passports, diplomatic credentials, school diplomas, traffic signs and stamps and naming of typhoons
8.       Sponsored the construction of the North and South Expressway, housing for soldiers and government employees, beautification of Rizal Park and the establishment of Philippine Veterans Bank

1.       Graft and corruption (Stonehill Scandal)
2.       Rise in Consumer good prices
3.       Peace and order issues
4.       Macapagal’s privileged subjects in congress and business paraded their lavish wealth in conspicuous parties and anomalies deals

III. MARCOS ADMINISTRATION(Term: December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986)
First Term: (December 1965 – December 1969)

1.       Stabilization of government finance by means of effective collection of taxes, imposing new tax laws and getting loans from foreign banks and government
2.       Greater production of rice (“miracle rice”), construction of more irrigation systems and giving financial and technical assistance to the farmers
3.       Building of more road and bridges, schoolhouses and other public works
4.       Intensive drive against smuggling, crime syndicates and communist NPA
5.       Holding of Manila Summit Conference on October 24-25, 1966

1.       National treasury almost empty
2.       Short of funds for essential services including education, health, national defense, social welfare and infrastructure

Reelection (1969)

Unprecedented in the political annals of the Philippine republic for:
1.       First President to be reelected for a second term
2.       First President to take his oath of office in the native language

Second Term (1969)

1.       Economic Recession
2.       Prevalence of dirty politics
3.       Rampage graft and corruption
4.       Widening gap between the poor and rich
5.       Impotency of the 1935 Philippine Constitution
6.       Rising tides if crime, communism and subversion

January 30, 1970: Student demonstration in Malacanang
1.       Good government without dirty politics
2.       Social justice through land reform
3.       Lower prices for prime commodities and jobs for unemployed
4.       Improvement of educational system
5.       A new constitution replace the 1935 Phil. constitution

*August 24, 1970: Marcos signed RA 6132 “1970 Con-Con Act”

*November 20, 1970: Election of 302 Con-Con delegates

*June 1, 1971: Inauguration of Con-Con at Fiesta Pavilion of Manila Hotel, Manila by Senate President Gil Puyat and House Speaker Cornelio Villareal

*August 21, 1971: “Plaza Miranda Massacre” during the proclamation rally of the Liberal Party for local elections on November 8, 1971. Two grenades hurled on the platform killed 8 persons and injured 120.

*Same day, Proclamation No. 800 was issued suspending the writ of habeas corpus“in order ot maintain peace and order, secure the safety of the people and preserve the authority of the State”.


                Not long after, Marcos administration claimed the resurgence of threats to the stability of the Republic. Obviously, the government was facing a number of crises, some of which threatened the stability of the country, but others were masterminded by President Marcos himself in an attempt to prepare the way for his declaration of martial law.

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