Monday, November 18, 2013

Understanding History (History 3)

UNDERSTANDING HISTORY

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” – George Santayana

HISTORY (historia, Greek “inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation) is the discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes.

HISTORIAN is a person who studies and writes about the past. They are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race.

HISTORICAL SOURCES are definite record, account or source of information used to reconstruct the past.

                2 TYPES: PRIMARY (witness, direct) and SECONDARY (indirect)

HISTORIOGRAPHY refers to the systematic writing of history, especially based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into narrative form.  

HISTORICAL METHOD is the analysis of the sources and the synthesis of the material. (Shafer, 1974)
1.        Historical Criticism – a kind of diagnostic device or cross-examination to test the reliability and credibility of a piece of evidence
a.       External Criticism(Lower) - Establishes the reliability or veracity (correctness) of the source or evidence by evaluating its author, title, date and place of publication and so on
b.       Internal Criticism (Higher) - Judges the credibility or validity (trustworthiness) by attributing a moral value to the piece of evidence or source
2.        Synthesis (Reporting) – the shifting grouping, arrangement, generalization and organization of the facts gathered in order to form a body of connected and related knowledge which must be presented in a logical form.
a.        Geographic (space)
b.       Periodic (time)
c.        Topical (subject)
REASONS FOR STUDYING HISTORY OF MOROS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN MINSUPALA (Kadil, 2002) :

1. It can generally help the university students and public readers understand the past.
2. It can develop among the students in the university an appreciation of history of the Muslims/Moros and the Lumads/IPs as part of the history of the Phil. and neighboring countries.
3. It can develop among students and readers a better understanding and perspective of the Moro and Lumads struggle for self-determination so as to rectify the long-held misconceptions, biases and prejudices against them through an impartial and objective presentation of history.
4. It can promote the integration among students and people in the MINSUPALA region by providing them an academic atmosphere through which they could share their unique cultural similarities or peculiarities and learn from each others’ experiences.
5. It can guide the national or regional government in the formulation of policies and programs towards the Bangsamoro and IPs that are essential to political stability and progress in the country today and the whole region of insular Southeast Asia.

HISTORICAL AND LEGAL REFERENCES IN THE WRITING OF MORO HISTORY (Kadil, 2002):

1.  Documentation on the Moro History abound in literature, especially in Spanish sources as early as 1565
2. Moro Sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao were recognized as sovereignty by other sovereign powers in the world
3. Americans created and recognized the Moro Province (1903-1913)
4. The Phil. Republic was cognizant of the emerging “Moro Problem” in post-independence period
5. The Bangsamoro groups are stipulated in the Organic Act of 1987 creating ARMM (RA 6734)
6. The Legal Status of the MNLF upon signing the Final Agreement of 1996
7. The Legal Status of the MILF upon signing the Tripoli Agreement of 2001
8. The Legal Status of the MNLF-MILF Unity in 2001 under the banner name Bangsamoro Solidarity Conference (BSC)
9. The Legal Recognition of the various Moros organizations and political parties
10. The Mindanao State University has been mandated to offer a course on Muslims in the Philippines, Moros and the IPs in MINSUPALA.

Bibliography

Kadil, B. J. (2002). History of the Moro and Indigenous Peoples in MINSUPALA. Marawi City: MSU-Marawi.
Shafer, R. J. (1974). A Guide to Historical Method. Homewood, Illinois: The Dorsey Press.




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